The Gnaoua have long sacrificed the absolute sacredality of its music and have evolved public performances which they called xxxxxx.  Traditionally a form of healing music where the Mallem ( master musician )  supported by several other musicians and a clairvoyant,  negotiated with jinn ( spirits ),  fusion with other forms of music brought abouxxxxxxx.   Early forms of this fusion was with American jazz players and some rock and blues musicians.  The latter included Robert Plant and Jimmy Page who developed a special interest in north African music,  attending concerts and festivals.

Famously members of British rock band Led Zeppelin,  Page and Plant played with Gnaouia musicians in and around Marrakech in 1993.